He abruptly reversed decades of United States policy this month when he recognised Jerusalem as Israel's capital, generating outrage from Palestinians and the Arab world and concern among Washington's western allies.
The Egyptian-drafted resolution did not specifically mention the USA or Trump but expressed "deep regret at recent decisions concerning the status of Jerusalem".
Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas has scrapped a meeting with Pence in protest at the Jerusalem announcement, and will instead head to Saudi Arabia to meet King Salman and Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman.
Jerusalem's status has always been considered a final status issue to be determined by Israeli-Palestinian peace negotiations and Trump's decision is widely seen as undercutting that long-standing understanding. Palestinians want the capital of an independent Palestinian state to be in the city's eastern sector, which Israel captured in a 1967 war and annexed in a move never recognized internationally.
Palestinian President Abbas spokesman blasted the move at the time and said, "it leaves [the impression that] the USA its losing its position as a negotiator" and that Washington is "withdrawing from its duties as a sponsor of the diplomatic peace process".
Also speaking prior to the vote, the U.S.'s envoy to the United Nations said the US has "every right to" place its embassy at a location of its choosing.
With the Palestinians rejecting USA mediation, Russian Federation said it was ready to take over.
Earlier on Monday, the Palestinians said that they would seek United Nations General Assembly support if the USA vetoed the UNSC resolution.
In explaining the veto, U.S. ambassador to the United Nations Nikki Haley said it was the first USA veto in the Security Council in more than six years.
Slamming the resolution as an "insult", she said, "What we witnessed here today in the Security Council is an insult".
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Abbas emphasized that the Palestinian Authority would resort to the UN General Assembly for the adoption of a set of resolutions, and said in this context that the PA would deploy all efforts in order to get full membership. Trump also plans to move the U.S. embassy to Jerusalem from Tel Aviv.
The Egyptian Foreign Ministry Monday expressed regret at the result.
"Egypt is saddened by the veto of this important decision which heeds the conscience of the worldwide community and openly rejects US recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel".
He added that the Arab group in the United Nations will convene later to assess the situation and determine the next step in order to defend the status of Jerusalem.
A spokesman for Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas said the veto was "unacceptable and threatens the stability of the global community because it disrespects it".
The U.S. veto came almost a year after the previous U.S. administration abstained in a council vote condemning Israeli settlements, allowing that measure to pass.
Abbas also signed 22 agreements and worldwide treaties to strengthen the legal status of the state of Palestine on a global scale.
"We are ready to become an honest mediator here", he said.
The issue of Jerusalem is particularly complicated and sensitive, and involves the basis for finding a solution to the Palestinian issue, he told the Security Council.
This article has been adapted from its original source.