The blast occurred as worshipers gathered for prayer inside the Imam Zamam mosque at around 6.00 p.m.
It noted the toll may rise as several injured people remained in critical condition.
Mohammad Iqbal Nizami, the spokesman for the provincial chief of police, says the bomber struck during Friday prayers, killing 33.
At least 39 people died and 45 were wounded in an assault on a Shiite mosque in Kabul, Afghan Interior Ministry spokesman Najib Danish said.
Ghor was among the relatively calm provinces in north-western parts of the country but the province has started to witness growing instability during the recent years as both the Taliban insurgents and ISIS loyalists attempt to expand their foothold in this province.
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No group immediately claimed responsibility for the attack. Seven of his bodyguards were also killed in the attack.
The Taliban claimed responsibility for that attack, according to a statement from the group's spokesman, Qhari Yosouf Ahmadi. In April, a deadly raid on a northern army base left as many as 140 feared dead.
Another attack on al-Zahra Mosque in Herat province, in the west of Afghanistan, killed at least six people and wounded many others.
He said the suicide bomber blew himself up among the worshippers.
Afterward, five attackers entered the building and a five-hour gunfight ensued.