Tolo News channel said that two suicide bombers used Humvee vehicles to attack the base located in the Maiwand district.
The Taliban claimed responsibility for the attack, saying in a text to media outlets that 60 Afghan security forces were killed.
Among those killed was the provincial police chief, Torialai Abdyani.
The Taliban claimed the ambush in a message to journalists, which said all 60 security personnel on the base were killed.
"A spokesman for the Ministry of Defense (MoD) Dawlat Waziri said: "(The base) has been destroyed completely and those who were inside the camp were martyred.
Only two of the soldiers stationed at the base escaped the attack unhurt.
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As the Taliban overran districts in the south of the country, and then briefly captured the northern city of Kunduz in 2015 and then again previous year, officials expressed concern that they might deploy the army and police vehicles they took with them in future operations against the Afghan forces.
Thursday's attacks take the number of suicide and gun assaults on security installations this week to four and increases the total death toll to more than 120, including soldiers, police and civilians.
And the base itself sustained major damage.
The Taliban have been waging an insurgency for a decade and a half in an attempt to overthrow the government in Kabul.
"After the explosion, we heard shootings, and then more explosions".
On Tuesday, two attacks in southeast Afghanistan killed 80 people and wounded nearly 300 in the bloodiest day in the war-torn country in almost five months. The battle ended with a US airstrike that killed nine Taliban fighters, North Atlantic Treaty Organisation officials said.